Legal Consequences of Fake News on Social Media in Nigeria

Legal Consequences of Fake News on Social Media in Nigeria

Published on: May 9, 2024

 Legal Consequences of Fake News on Social Media in Nigeria

In today's digital age, the rapid spread of information through social media can have unprecedented impacts, notably through the dissemination of fake news. In Nigeria, as in many other countries, fake news is not just a problem of misinformation but can lead to serious legal consequences. This article aims to explore what constitutes fake news, how it is legally defined and treated in Nigeria, and practical steps that users can take to verify information and protect themselves from legal repercussions.

What is Fake News?

Fake news refers to false or misleading information presented as news. It often has the aim of damaging the reputation of a person or entity, or making money through advertising revenue. In the context of social media, fake news is especially pernicious because it can spread quickly and widely with just a few clicks.

In Nigeria, several statutes cover aspects related to misinformation or actions that could be linked to the spread of fake news:

1. Cybercrimes (Prohibition, Prevention, Etc.) Act 2015: Under this Act, cyberstalking and cyberbullying are criminal offenses. Individuals spreading fake news that constitutes harassment or threats online could be prosecuted under this Act.

2. Defamation Laws: Defamation is a legal term used to describe any intentional false communication, either written or spoken, that harms a person's reputation, decreases the respect, regard, or confidence in which a person is held, or induces disparaging, hostile, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against a person. In the context of Nigerian law, defamation can be classified into two categories:


This refers to defamatory statements made in a permanent form, primarily through written communications, pictures, or any other form of print media. With the coming of digital age, social media posts, comments, and emails also fall under libel.


This involves defamatory statements made in a transient form, primarily spoken words or gestures.

Under Nigerian law, individuals are protected from defamation, and publishing fake news that defames a person or an entity can lead to a civil lawsuit. Plaintiffs in defamation cases need to prove that the false statement was communicated to a third party, aimed circumstantially at them, and resulted in harm to their reputation or was otherwise actionable (e.g., spoke against in conditions that falsely suggest the commission of a crime or contain other damaging insinuations).

When fake news results in defamatory statements spread via social media, the perpetrators can be held legally accountable. Accusations based on unverified information that malign a person merit a defamation claim. The litigated party could face orders for compensation for damages, including loss of reputation and emotional distress, or declaratory reliefs, which publicly recognize that the respective information was indeed false.

The Protection Against False Accusations (P.A.F.A.) Law further gives a statute-borne handle to engage negatively impacted individuals or businesses to exercise litigation against entities or individuals that have perpetrated defamatory online misconduct. Thus, stepping beyond what could be dismissed as mere user-generated content on social media platforms can lead to real-world, legal consequences.

Understanding and respecting these substratal legal frameworks is important when engaging in online communications. Publishing content on social platforms without verifying facts not only demonizes the target of the fake news but puts the creator at risk of being embroiled in legal and civil inefficacies. Therefore, it should be advisable before sharing substantial content on social media, especially those pertaining to the character or actions of individuals or organizations, to exert thorough scrutiny to validate claims or to decline from sharing unfounded information altogether.

3. Criminal Code and Penal Code: Setting the false facts into motion that may breach peace, cause fear, or alarm the public, or to some segment of the public can attract prosecution under sections of the criminal or penal codes.

It's crucial to note that the legal implications can be significant, resulting in fines, penalties, and even imprisonment for those found guilty of spreading fake news.

Verifying Information Before Sharing

Given the severe potential consequences of misinformation, it's essential that social media users take steps to verify information before sharing. Here are some practical tips for verification:

1. Check the source: Always look at the source of the news item. Reliable and reputable sources are more likely to provide factual information.

2. Cross-reference news: Look for the same news on other reputable media platforms. If the news is real, other outlets are likely also to report it.

3. Fact-check: Some websites provide fact-checks. The purpose of these fact-checks is usually to investigate assertions published by other online and provide facts to refute false claims or news. In essence, they do much of the work in investigating the authenticity of popular claims and news.

4. Critically analyze content: Often, fake news may contain sensationalized headings, inconsistent dates, or altered images. A critical look at these can help identify red flags.

5. Beware of bias: Analysing news from a point of bias awareness can also aid in identifying news which could be altered or completely fabricated for certain agendas.


For users of social media in Nigeria, staying informed about the nature of fake news and its legal ramifications is vital. By understanding what constitutes fake news, remembering its legal dangers, and using tools at one’s disposal for verification, individuals can safeguard themselves not only against misinformation but also against potential legal trouble. Awareness and education are crucial as Nigeria, along with the global community, grapples with the challenges posed by the digital dissemination of information. Responsible sharing could be one of the strongest weapons against the spread of damaging falsehoods.


Nigerian Law Forum (AI Assisted)

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